James has summed it up pretty succinctly.
CosmosDb is Azure’s cloud-hosted multi-model database (e.g. it has a graph frontend and a mongodb compatible frontend too for instance) with powerful indexing, querying and cross-geography features. One thing it has a reputation for is being expensive - there’s a grain of truth to that; while not devious, it certainly has many layers of nuance and can absolutely, yield bad results (bills and performance) when used inappropriately.
It absolutely has powerful features that EventStore doesn’t have. That’s also true of SQL Databases (including SQLite) and MongoDb. There are libraries that claim to be Event Store in CosmosDb. There are definitely people using it as an Event Store and/or for Event Sourcing for various kinds of systems, so I would definitely not call your friend a liar.
Being a powerful multimodel database, it has a changefeed and some building blocks that can be used to achieve ends that overlap with those of an Event Store.
But it’s pretty inaccurate to call it an Event Store.
Trying to treat CosmosDb as an Event Store without investing a lot of time in understanding (and, critically, measuring) the charging model is a pretty bad idea (i.e. big bills, hard to scale as advertised) for any system with any interesting scale.